In general, glaucoma is categorized ad primary (meaning inherited) or secondary (associated with other events). Secondary glaucoma can occur from infection, trauma, inflammation, lens luxation, etc. Primary glaucoma can occur in one or both eyes. If the initial glaucoma is in one eye, the second eye will often become involved within days, weeks, or months. Glaucoma is an aggressive, often blinding disease and requires specific, and sometimes aggressive, medical therapy-TIME IS CRITICAL IN GLAUCOMA! Surgical therapy may be needed to maintain vision.
Several breeds of dogs are known to have inherited glaucoma. This would include basset hounds, Cocker spaniels, Shar Peis, and border collies.
BASSET HOUND GLAUCOMA
This is the most aggressive glaucoma that we see. If one eye develops glaucoma, it will become cloudy, red, painful, & blind within a matter of 1-4 days. DO NOT WAIT FOR THE SECOND EYE TO BECOME INVOLVED!
Medical therapy for acute glaucoma may include intravenous manital as an osmotic directic to pull fluid out of the eye, much like a water pill. Topical medications are aimed at decreasing the production, or increasing the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye. This therapy needs to be specific and aggressive to get IOP down into the normal range, of 10-20mm of mercury. Intraocular pressure needs to be checked at every evaluation! If pressure is not carefully evaluated and followed, loss of vision is almost inevitable.
Surgical therapy; As with medical therapy, surgical therapy for glaucoma is very involved. Basically surgical therapy either decreases production of aqueous humor or increases the outflow of aqueous humor to get the pressure down. If pressure is poorly controlled, and vision is lost, enucleation or intraocular prosthesis are options.